Physics

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission

The nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus breaks into two is called nuclear fission.

The energy generated from nuclear fission is called Nuclear Energy.

Chain Reaction

When uranium is bombarded with nuclei, the fission of one uranium nucleus emits excessive energy and three new neutrons. These three new neutrons also disintegrate the other nuclei of uranium. In this way, a chain of fission of uranium nuclei is formed, which is called a chain reaction.

There are two types of a chain reaction:

  • Uncontrolled Chain Reaction.
  • Controlled Chain Reaction.

What is an uncontrolled chain reaction?

The reaction in which the control of three new neutrons emanating as a result of the fragmentation of a uranium nucleus does not occur, causing the rate of fragmentation of the nucleus to triple continuously ie 1, 3, 9, 27, 81, 243, uncontrolled chain reaction. (Uncontrolled chain reaction).

In this reaction, very fast, ie uncontrolled energy is produced, due to which excessive destruction can happen in a very short time.

Atomic bombs have an uncontrolled chain reaction.

Nuclear power plant with cooling towers
Nuclear power plant with cooling towers

What is a Controlled chain reaction?

The reaction in which the process of fission of uranium nuclei takes place slowly and remains controlled is called a controlled chain reaction. The energy obtained from this reaction is used for profitable purposes.

A controlled chain reaction is used in a nuclear furnace or nuclear reactor.

What is an Atomic Bomb?

The Atom bomb is based on the principle of nuclear fission.

Uranium-235 (92U235) and plutonium-239 (94P239) are used to make nuclear bombs.

When was the Atom bomb first used?

The Atom bomb was first used by the United States during the Second World War (two cities of Japan, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki, dropping a bomb on August 6, 1945, and August 9, 1945, respectively).

Atomic Pile or Nuclear Reactor 

Nuclear Reactor uses Uranium-235 as plutonium-239 as fuel and heavy water or graphite is used as a propellant.

In nuclear reactors, cadmium or boron rods are used as controller rods that absorb two of the three new neutrons released during nuclear fission. Thus, a control rod has a very important role in a nuclear reactor.

The first nuclear reactor was built at the University of Chicago.

A nuclear reactor can be used to obtain electrical energy and generate many types of isotopes.

What is Nuclear Fusion?

The reaction in which two or more light nuclei join together to form a heavy nucleus and release a lot of energy is called nuclear fusion.

For example – 1H2 + 1H2 → 2H4 + 0N1 + 17.6 Me V

Energy and light from the sun and stars are derived from the principle of nuclear fusion.

Bomb works on the principle of nuclear fusion.

What is a Bomb?

The Bomb is based on the principle of nuclear fusion, which was invented in the year 1952.

Hydrogen Bomb is 1,000 times more powerful than the Atom Bomb. Thus hydrogen is much more powerful than the atomic bomb.

On what principle does a nuclear bomb work?

The atomic bomb works on the principle of nuclear fission.

On what principle does a hydrogen bomb work?

Works on the principle of nuclear fusion.

By what principle do the sun and stars get energy and light?

By the principle of nuclear fusion.

What reaction occurs in a nuclear bomb?

Uncontrolled chain reaction.

What reaction is used in a nuclear furnace or nuclear reactor?

Controlled chain reaction.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button
Study Worms Would you like to receive notifications on latest updates? No Yes

Adblock Detected

Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker