PhysicsChemistry

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is a range of all types of electromagnetic radiations.

Types of Electromagnetic Wavelengths

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Gamma Rays

Wavelength range: 1x 10^-14 m to 1 x 1^-10 m

Frequency range: 3 x 10^22 Hz to 3 x 3^18 Hz

Production: Gamma rays are formed by transitions of atomic nuclei and decay of certain elementary particles.

Properties: Chemical reaction on photographic plates, fluorescence, ionization, diffraction, highly-penetrating, chargeless, harmful to the human body.

Uses: They provide information about the structure of atomic nuclei.

X- Rays

Wavelength range: 10x 10^-13 m to 3 x 10^-8 m

Frequency range: 3 x 10^21 Hz to 1 x 10^16 Hz

Production: X – rays are produced by the sudden deceleration of high-speed electrons at high – atomic number target, and also by electronic transitions among the innermost orbit of atoms.

Properties: Chemical reaction on photographic plates, fluorescence, ionization, diffraction, less-penetrating, chargeless, harmful to the human body.

Uses:

In Science: For studying the structure of inner atomic electron shells and crystals.

In Surgery: For detection of fractures, diseased organs, the formation of bones and stones, observing the progress of healing bones.

In Engineering: For detecting faults, cracks, floors, and holes in finished metal products.

In Radio Therapy: To cure untraceable skin diseases, in Cancer diseases.

Ultraviolet Rays

Wavelength range: 6 x 10^-10 m to 4 x 10^-7 m

Frequency range: 5 x 10^ Hz to 4 x 10^14 Hz

Production: Ultraviolet rays are produced by sun, arc, vacuum spark, and ionized gases.

Properties: Chemical reaction on photographic plates, fluorescence, ionization, diffraction, less-penetrating, chargeless, harmful to the human body, produce photoelectric effect observed by atmospheric .

Uses: Detection of invisible writing, forced documents, fingerprints, and to preserve foodstuffs, to bacteria, and for sterilizing the surgical instruments, in a burglar alarm in studying molecular structure.

Wavelength range: 4 x 10^-7 m to 7 x 10^-7 m

Frequency range: 7 x 10^14 Hz to 4 x 10^14 Hz

Production: rays are produced by radiated by excited atoms in gases and incandescent bodies.

Properties: Reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarization, photoelectric effect, photographic action, and sensation of sight.

Uses: Reveals the structure of molecules and arrangement of electrons in external shells of atoms.

Infrared Radiation

Wavelength range: 8 x 10^-7 m to 5 x 10^-3 m

Frequency range: 4 x 10^14 Hz to 4 x 10^10 Hz

Production: Infrared radiations are formed from hot bodies, and by rotational and vibrational transitions in molecules.

Properties: Heating effect on thermopile and bolometer, reflection, refraction, diffraction, penetration through fog

Uses: For providing electrical energy to satellites by means of solar cells, for producing dehydrated fruits, for treating muscle strain, in solar water heaters and cookers, for weather forecasting through infrared photography, in greenhouses to keep the plants from and in warfare to look through the haze.

Microwaves

Wavelength range: 1 x 10^-3 m to 3 x 10^-1 m

Frequency range: 3 x 10^11 Hz to 1 x 10^9 Hz

Production: Microwaves are produced by the current in special vacuum tubes, and by electromagnetic oscillators in electric circuits.

Properties: Reflection and polarization.

Uses: In radar system used in aircraft navigation, long-distance wireless communication via satellite, and in microwave ovens.

Radio Waves

Wavelength range: 1 x 10^-1 m to 1 x 10^4 m

Frequency range: 3 x 10^9 Hz to 3 x 10^4 Hz

Production: Radio waves are produced by oscillating electric circuits.

Properties: Reflection and diffraction.

Uses: In Radio and TV communication system. Cell phones use radio waves to transmit voice communication in an ultrahigh-frequency band.

Long Waves

Wavelength range: 5 x 10^6 m to 6 x 10^6 m

Frequency range: 60 Hz to 50 Hz

Production: Weak radiation from AC circuits.

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