The Vedic Period

The Vedic Period

Rig Vedic Period

  • The early Vedic period is known from the Rig Veda.
  • Rig Veda refers to Saptasindhu or the land of seven rivers which includes seven major rivers of Punjab, namely, Jhelum, Sutlej, Beas, Chenab, and Ravi along with the Indus and Saraswati.
  • Historians view that Aryans came from Asia.
  • They entered India through Khyber pass.
  • They first settled in seven places in the Punjab region which they called Sapt Sindu.
  • The Aryan Civilisation was a rural civilization.

Vedic Literature

  • The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the word ‘vid’ which means to know and signify ‘superior knowledge’.
  • The Vedic literature consists of four Vedas
    Rig Veda
    Sama Veda
    Yajur Veda
    Atharv Veda
  • Rig Veda is the oldest Veda.
  • Rig Veda is divided into 10 mandalas and it consists of 1028 hymns.
  • The hymns were sung by Hotri in praise of various gods.
  • The hymns were sung by Hotri in praise of various gods.
  • Yajur Veda consists of the details of rules to observe the time of sacrifice.
  • The hymns of Yajur Veda were recited by Adharvayus.
  • The Sama Veda is set to tune for the purpose of chanting during the sacrifice. It is called the book of chants and the origins of Indian music are traced in it.
  • The Atharv Veda contains all the details of rituals.
  • Besides vedas, there are other sacred works like Brahmanas, Upanishads, Aranyakas, and the epics and Mahabharata.
The Vedic Period

Social Life

  • The family was the basis of society.
  • The head of the family was known as grihapathi.

Economic Condition

  • The Rig Vedic Aryans were pastoral people and their main occupation was cattle rearing
  • Their wealth was estimated in the terms of their cattle.
  • Carpentry was another important profession.


  • The important Rig Vedic gods were Prithvi, Agni, Vayu, Varuna, and Indra.
  • Indra was the most famous god during the early Rog Vedic period.
  • There were many female gods like Aditi and Ushas.
  • There were no temples and no idol worship during the early Rig Vedic period.

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