Civics

The President

The President

President is the executive head of the state and the first citizen of India.
the 42nd amendment of the Constitution has made it obligatory the part of the President to accept the advice of the council of ministers. However, the 44th amendment Act amended the word of bigotry and added that the president can send the advice for reconsideration.

Qualifications

  • He/She must a citizen of India.
  • He/She must 35 years of age.
  • He/She must eligible to a member of Lok Sabha and must not hold any office of profit.

Election

He/She is indirectly elected through the Electoral College Constitutes listing of elected members of both the houses of the parliament and elected members of the legislative assemblies of the states.
According to the 74th amendment Act 1992, the expression states that include the national capital territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry members of legislative councils have no right to vote in the presidential election supreme court decides all disputes regarding the presidential election.

The President, Rashtrapati Bhavan

Tenure

  • The term is 5 years though there is no upper limit the number of times a person can become the President. He/She can give resignation to the Vice President before the full term.
  • The salary of the president is ₹150000 per month.
  • In case the office of the President false vacant due to death resignation or the removal of the Vice President acts as the President.
  • If he/she is not available then the chief justice of India if not then the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court shall act as the President of India.
  • The only President who died in the office was Dr. Zakir Hussain. He was also the president with the shortest tenure.

Powers

  • He/She is the former head of the administration.
  • The president shall have the power to appoint and remove high authorities like the Prime Minister, other Ministers of the Union Judges, Governors of States, and appoints Chief of Army, Navy, and Air  Force.
  • Nominates 12 members of the Rajya Sabha for persons of literature 8 science and social work and two members in the Lok Sabha of the Anglo Indian Community.
  • Declare ward and conclude space subjects to the approval of the parliament.
  • The President has the veto power
  • The President has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites, or remission of punishment or to suspend, remit your commute the sentence of death to any person.
  • The President can from ordinances when the parliament is not in session.

Types of Vetoes

Absolute Veto

Withholding the assent to the bill.

Qualified Veto

Can be overridden by the legislature with a higher majority.

Suspensive Veto

Can be overridden by the legislature with an ordinary majority.

Pocket Veto

Delay in giving assent to the bill.

Emergency Powers

  • To declare a national emergency.
  • To impose president rule in a state.
  • Justice M Hidayathulla was the first Chief Justice of India to be appointed as a President.

Vice President

  • Article 63 of the Constitution stipulates a Vice President for India.
  • He is elected by both the houses of the parliament.
  • The Vice President is the ex officio chairman of the Council of States as mentioned in article 64.
  • The present salary of the vice president is ₹125000 per month.
  • The first Vice President of India was Dr. S Radhakrishnan.
  • The first and only Vice President who died in the office for Shri Krishna Kanth.
Vice-Presidents Of India

Qualifications

  • He/She must be a citizen of India.
  • He/She must be 35 years of age.
  • He/She must be qualified for election as a Member of States.

Tenure

The term is 5 years though there is no upper limit the number of times a person can become the Vice President. He/She can give resignation to the President before the full term.

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