- The Supreme Court of India was inaugurated on 28 January 1950.
- The Supreme Court consists of 31 Judges in which 1 Chief Justice and 30 other Judges.
- A small bench of two to three judges is called the Division Bench.
- A large bench of five or more judges is called a Constitutional Bench.
- Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of India.
- Judges of the Supreme Court retire at the age of 65 years.
- He/She must be a citizen of India.
- He/She must be a Judge of a High Court for at least 5 years.
- He/She must be an Advocate for High Court for at least 10 years should be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President.
- The Constitution has not prescribed minimum age for appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court.
Independence of Judges
- The salaries and allowances of Judges are charged from the Consolidated Fund of India.
- The salary of the Chief Justice of India is 10,0000.
- The salary of other judges is 90,000.
Removal of Judges
- Judges can be removed only on the grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity.
- Judges can be removed by passing a resolution on both the Houses of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of both the Houses and 2/3 of members present and voting. The first Judge against whom the proceedings were initiated was V Ramaswami and the second one is Soumitra Sen.
The Supreme Court has the following jurisdictions:
- Original Jurisdiction
- Advisory Jurisdiction
- Appellate Jurisdiction
Original jurisdiction means that certain types of cases can originate with the Supreme Court only. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in disputes between the centre and one or more states, disputes between the Centre and any State on one side and one or more States on the other side, disputes between two or more States, and disputes regarding the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
Appellate jurisdiction means that appeals against judgements of lower courts can be referred to it. The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal in the country. The types of cases that fall within its appellate jurisdiction are namely, Constitutional cases, Civil cases, and Criminal cases.
Advisory jurisdiction refers to the process where the President seeks the court’s advice on legal matters. The Supreme Court is a court of records.
Comptroller and Auditor General
- The Comptroller and Auditor General are appointed by the President of India.
- The Comptroller and Auditor General audit all receipts and expenditures of the Union and State Governments.
- The Comptroller and Auditor General act as the external auditor for the government-owned companies.
- The Comptroller and Auditor General submit its reports to the President and the State Governors.
- The first Comptroller and Auditor General of India were V Narahari Rao.
- G. C. Murmu is the present Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
- The Comptroller and Auditor General can only be removed from the office in case of proven misbehaviour or incapacity.
- The salary and benefits of the Comptroller and Auditor General cannot be changed to his disadvantages during his tenure.
- The Comptroller and Auditor General are not eligible for further office under the Union or State Governments.
- The expanses of the office of Comptroller and Auditor General is charged from the Consolidated Fund of India.
Attorney General of India
- The Attorney General is the highest law officer in the country who is appointed by the President.
- The first Attorney General of India was MC Setalvad.
- The present Attorney General of India is Shri K. K. Venugopal.
- To be appointed as Attorney General, a candidate, must be qualified to be appointed as a Judge of Supreme Court.
- The Attorney General can participate in proceedings of the Parliament without the Right to Vote.