It was inserted by the 42nd amendment act in 1976 on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee and it was taken from the erstwhile constitution of the USSR.
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India –
- To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions the National Flag and the National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
- Two different from the country and random national service when called upon to do so.
- Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India, transcending religious linguistic and regional or national diversities to read practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests lakes rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop the scientific temper humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievements.
The 86th amendment act 2002 inserted article 51a each parent for the guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or what between the age of 6 and 14 years.