Election Commission of India
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous and semi-judicial institution which was established on 25 January 1950. 25 January is celebrated as Voters’ Day.
The jurisdiction of the Election Commission of India is all over India. The Election House of India is the headquarters of the Election House Ashoka Road New Delhi.
Composition of Election Commission of India
Initially, the Election Commission of India was a single-member body. At present, the Election Commission of India has one Chief Election Commission and two Election Commissioners.
Chief Election Commissioner:
Sunil Arora (IAS).
- Ashok Lavasa (IAS).
- Sushil Chandra (Indian Revenue Service, Income Tax).
Appointment and tenure of Election Commission of India
- The Chief Election Commissioner of the Election Commission of India and the Election Commissioner is appointed by the President of India.
- The term of the Chief Election Commissioner is of the age of 06 years or 65 years, whichever is earlier.
- The term of the Election Commissioner is of the age of 06 or 62 years, whichever is earlier.
Powers of Election Commission
- According to Article-324 (1) of the Indian Constitution, the powers of the Election Commission of India are very broad which cannot be controlled by the executive. The powers of the Election Commission of India can be controlled by constitutional measures and legislation by Parliament.
- The Election Commission of India cannot violate the law made by the Parliament nor can it do voluntary work.
- The powers of the Election Commission of India cannot be exercised against the lawfully made election law, ie cannot violate the election law.
- The Election Commission of India has the power to determine the schedule of elections, to allocate election symbols to political parties, and to direct fair elections.
- According to Section 14 and 15 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, the President and the Governor have the right to issue election-related notification as per the advice of the Election Commission.
Functions of Election Commission of India
- Registration of political parties.
- Preparation of electoral roll.
- Supervising, directing, and conducting elections.
- To conduct elections to the President, Vice President, Parliament, State Assemblies.
- Classifying/recognizing political parties as national, state-level parties.
- Allotment of election symbol to political parties.
- Disqualification of MP (barring defection) to advise the President.
- Disqualification of MLA (except party-change) to advise Governor.
- Disqualifying persons using wrong election measures.
Election Reforms in India
- By the Representation of the People Act, 1988, the following amendments have been made in the Representation of the People Act-1951:
- EVM (electronic voting machine) can be used. In India, EVM was first used in the Lok Sabha elections of 2004 AD.
- It is mandatory for political parties to register with the Election Commission of India.