United Nations Organisation (UNO)
The United Nations (UN) is an association of states which have pledged themselves to maintain international peace and security and co-operate in solving international political, economic, social-cultural, and humanitarian problems towards achieving this end.
Trygve Lie of Norway (1946-52) was the first Secretary-General of the UN.
Guterres of Portugal is the present Secretary-General of the UN.
Un Charter was signed by 50 members on June 26, 1945. Poland signed the charter later to become one of the original 51 member states. It officially came into existence on Pct6ober 24, 1945.
The Charter is the Constitution of the UNO and contains its aims and objectives and rules and regulations for its functioning.
Aims and Objectives
They are security, welfare, and human rights.
The headquarters of the UN is situated in New York
The flag is light blue in color, and emblazoned in white, in its center is the UN symbol- a polar map of the world embraced by twin olive branches open at the top.
The official languages of the UN are: English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish. However, working languages are English and French only.
At present 193 countries are members of the UNO. South Sudan is the latest entrant to this world organization.
Main Organs of the UNO
There are six main organs:
- General Assembly
- Security Council
- Economic and Social Council
- Trusteeship Council
- International Court of Justice
It consists of representatives of all members of the UN. Each member country has only one vote. It meets once a year and passes the UN Budget. It is the main place for discussions and policymaking in the UN.
It is the executive body of the UN and is mainly responsible for maintaining international peace and security. It has 15 members, 5 of which (USA, UK, France, Russia, and China) are permanent members. The 10 non-permanent members are elected by General Assembly for a two-year term and are not eligible for immediate re-election.
Economic and Social Council
It has 54 members elected by General Assembly
It looks after the interest of the people in areas not yet independent and leads them towards self-government.
International Court of Justice
It has 15 judges, no two of whom may be nationals of the same state. They are elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for a term of 9 years. The Court elects it’s President and Vice-President for a 3-year term.
It is the Secretariat of the UN and is headed by the Secretary-General.
Some Important UN Agencies
Year of Establishment
|United Nations Organisations (U.N.O.)||New York||1945|
|International Monetary Fund (I.M.F.)||Washington||1945|
|World Health Organisation (W.H.O.)||Geneva||1948|
|Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO)||Rome||1943|
|International Labour Organisation ILO)||Geneva||1919|
|Universal Postal Union (UPU)||Berne||1874|
|International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)||Vienna||1957|
|United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)||New York||1965|
|International Maritime Organisation (IMO)||London||1948|
|World Meteorological Organisation (WMO)||Geneva||1951|
|International Telecommunication Union (ITU)||Geneva||1947|
|World Trade Organisation (WTO)||Geneva||1995|
|International Development Association (IDA)||Washington||1960|
|World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)||Geneva||1967|
Famous International Organisations
|International Organisations||Headquarters|| |
Year of Establishment
|International Court of Justice||The Hague||–|
|International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)||Montreal||1947|
|International Finance Corporation (IFC)||Washington||1956|
|Commonwealth of Nations||London||1931|
|International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)||Washington D.C.||1946|
|Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)||Mecca||1971|
|European Economic Community (EEC)||Geneva||1957|
|Asian Development Bank (ADB)||Manila||1966|
|North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)||Brussels||1949|
|Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)||Jakarta||1967|
|South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)||Kathmandu||1985|
|Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)||–||1989|
|Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)||Paris||1961|
|Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)||Vienna||1960|
|Common Wealth of Independent States (CIS||Belarus||1991|
|International Olympic Committee (IOC)||Switzerland||1894|
|European Union (EU)||Brussels||1965|
|Amnesty International (AI)||London||1961|
|Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)||–||2002|