Chemistry

What is Matter?

Matter

All those things that have mass and a physical appearance can be considered as a matter.

Classification of Matter

Physical Classification of Matter

There are five major states of matter namely solid, liquid, , -Einstein condensate, Plasma.

Solid, liquid, and provide a basic idea for the physical classification of matter.

Solid

In this state, the intermolecular force between constituent particles is very strong.

Liquid

In this state, the intermolecular force between constituent particles is very moderate.

In this state, the intermolecular force between constituent particles is very weak.

Plasma

It is a state containing gaseous ions and free electrons which is formed when the gaseous state is taken to a very high temperature.

-Einstein Condensate

This state is totally opposite of plasma. This state is achieved by a gas of extremely low density.

Chemical Classification of Matter

The chemical classification of matter are as follows:

Mixture

Two or more substances are mixed together to give a mixture.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture having uniform composition is called a homogeneous mixture, e.g. salt solution, air, etc.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition is called a homogeneous mixture, e.g. the mixture of cereals and pulses, the mixture of salt and sugar solution, etc.

Pure Substances

Pure substances have a fixed composition and their constituents cannot be changed by physical methods, e.g. gold, silver, platinum, etc.

Elements

They consist of only one type of atom, e.g. copper, cobalt. nickel, iron, sodium, etc.

Compounds

They consist of more than one type of atom, e.g. water, Sodium Chloride, etc.

Physical and Chemical Changes

A matter undergoes a variety of changes. There are two types of changes physical and chemical changes.

Physical Changes

  • Physical changes are the specific changes in state, texture, electric and magnetic behavior, etc.
  • These changes are reversible.

Chemical Changes

  • Chemical changes are specific changes in the composition of molecules.
  • These changes are irreversible.

Properties of Matter

Mass and Weight: Mass represent the number of substances in a system. Weight represents the force due to gravity exerted on that system.

Volume: It is a quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a matter.

Density: Density is defined as the mass per unit volume.

Temperature: The temperature of a body is the intensity of heat associated with it.

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