What is Chemistry?
Under this, the properties, structure, organization, and changes in substances are studied. The word chemistry has its origins in the ancient Egyptian word “chemist”.
Who is the father of chemistry?
The father of chemistry is called “Lavoisier”.
What is the matter?
Any object that occupies a space that has a fixed mass and which opposes changes in its structure (texture) is called matter. Such as water, soil, air, iron, etc.
What is an atom?
All matter is made up of very fine particles called atoms.
A substance divided into how many parts in Chemistry?
The substance is mainly divided into two parts:
It is divided into three parts:
It is mainly divided into two parts:
it is divided into two parts:
It is divided into two parts:
It is divided into two parts:
- Homogeneous Mixture
- Heterogeneous Mixture
What is the solid-state of matter?
The physical state of matter which has a certain size and volume is called solid. Such as – pencil, iron chair, snowflake, iron pipe, etc.
What is fluid?
The physical state of a substance whose size is uncertain and the volume is fixed is called fluid. Such as water, diesel, petrol, alcohol, etc.
What is gas?
The physical state of matter whose volume and size are both uncertain is called gas. Such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.
Which is the substance that can remain solid, liquid and gas in all three states?
Water is a substance that can remain in all three physical states solid, liquid and gas.
What are those solids whose temperature and pressure cannot be changed by changing their state?
The state of any substance can be changed by changing the temperature and pressure, but wood and stone are such substances that remain in the solid-state only.
What is elevation?
On heating some substances become gases directly from the solid-state, this activity is called sublimation. Such as iodine, camphor, etc.
What is a compound?
Those pure substances which are formed by chemical combination in a certain proportion of two or more elements are called compounds. Such as water, copper, zinc, etc.
What is a homogeneous mixture?
A mixture formed by mixing different ingredients in a certain ratio is called a homogeneous mixture. Such as aqueous solutions of salt, gas, etc.
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
A mixture made by mixing different ingredients in an indefinite proportion is called a heterogeneous mixture. Such as fog, gunpowder, etc.
What is the liquid?
When a solid substance is heated to a certain pressure and temperature, when it converts to a liquid state, this fixed temperature is called the euthanasia.
What is the freezing point of ice?
The freezing point of ice is 0°C.
What is the effect of pressure on euthanasia?
For those substances whose volume increases on melting, the eigenvalues of those substances increase with increasing pressure. Like- wax, copper, etc.
For those substances whose volume decreases on melting, the eigenvalues of those offenses decrease with increasing pressure. Such as casting iron, ice, etc.
What is evaporation?
- The action of actually changing the fluid is called evaporation. Evaporation is of two types – evaporation and boiling point.
- Evaporation is the process of converting a fluid into a vapor at a temperature lower than the boiling point.
The action of evaporation depends on the following things:
- Evaporation increases when the temperature is high and evaporation decreases when the temperature is low.
- The lower the boiling point, the faster the action of evaporation.
- Evaporation is higher when the area of the open surface of the fluid is more and evaporation is less when the area is less.
- Evaporation speeds up when the air pressure is low on the surface of the fluid.
What is the Boiling point in Chemistry?
At a certain pressure and the fixed temperature at which a fluid boils and changes from a liquid state to a vapor state, it is called a fixed boiling point.
** Boiling point increases as pressure increases and the boiling point decreases when pressure decreases.
What is the Freezing point in Chemistry?
When a liquid converts into a solid at a certain pressure and constant temperature, that is, it freezes, it is called freezing point. The freezing point of snow is 0
Conduct of gases
The volume of a given volume of a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its ultimate temperature.
That is, T = 2730 + t° C
T = temperature
t = heat
The volume of a given volume of a gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to its pressure.
All gases at the same temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules in the same volume.
At the same temperature and pressure, the volume of 1 gram molecule of different gases is 22.4 liters in which the number of molecules is 6.022 × 1023.
Diffusion of gases
Despite the difference in density, the natural process of mixing different gases against the gravitational force of the Earth is called diffusion.
Graham Law of Diffusion
The relative speeds of diffusion of gases at constant temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to their density or the square root of the atom.
What effect does density have on diffusion?
Diffusion is lower when density increases and diffusion is greater when density decreases.
What is a molecule?
The smallest particle of an element that can remain in the free state is called a molecule.
Atoms are made up of which particles?
An atom is made up of three particles i.e, electrons, protons, and neutrons.
- Electrons and protons rotate in the orbit of the atom and neutrons in the nucleus remain constant.
- The negative charge on the electron is positive on the proton and the neutron is neutral.
Who discovered electrons?
The electron was discovered by J.J. Thomson. The mass of the electron is 9.1095 × 10–28 g. The charge on electron – 1.
Who discovered protons?
The proton was discovered by Goldstein. The mass of the proton is 1.6726 × 10–24 g. The charge on electron + 1 on proton
Who discovered neutrons?
Neutron was discovered by Chadwick. The mass of the neutron is 1.6749 × 10–24 g.
The charge on neutron is zero.