It is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances that is permanent and translucent.
Size of Solute Particles
The solute particles of the solution are less than 10–7 cm 0, due to which it cannot be seen even under a microscope.
Solvents and Solute
The substance which is present in excess in a solution is solvent and the substance which is in small quantity is called the solute.
The higher the solvent, the higher the die electric constant, the better the solvent is considered.
Due to the high dielectric constant of water, it is called the universal solvent.
Types of Solution
The solution is of 09 type which is as follows –
The solution of solid in solid – alloys such as brass (copper and zinc).
The alloy here is a brass solid material which is made of two solid materials/metals copper and zinc. Thus alloy is the solution of solid in brass solid.
A gas solution in a solid – such as an air solution in camphor.
A fluid solution in a fluid – such as an alcohol or salt solution in water
A gas solution in a fluid – such as a solution of carbon dioxide in water.
A solution of solid in liquid– eg lead solution in mercury.
A solution of liquid in solid – eg solution of mercury in thallium.
A solid solution in gas -eg iodine solution in air.
A gas solution in a gas – such as a mixture of air, gases.
A solution of liquid in gas -eg cloud, fog, and ammonia solution in water.
Use of Solvent
- In the manufacture of beverages and foods.
- In waterless washing.
- In the manufacture of medicines, cents, and perfumes, etc.
A solution that has a maximum amount of solute at a certain temperature is called a saturated solution.
A solution formed at a certain temperature in which more amount of solute can be dissolved is called an unsaturated solution.
The maximum amount of solute dissolved in a 100-gram solvent at a certain temperature and pressure is called the solubility of that solute in that solvent.
That is, the solubility of a substance in the solvent depends on the nature of the solvent and the solute, and on the heat and pressure.
Effect of Pressure on Solubility
The solubility of the gas in the fluid increases with increasing pressure.
Effect of Heat on Solubility
The solubility of the gas in the fluid decreases with increasing temperature.
The solubility of solids increases by increasing the temperature, but the solubility of some solids decreases with the increase in temperature. Such as calcium hydroxide, calcium sulfate, and calcium nitrate, etc.
Concentration of Solution
The amount of open volume of a solution is called the concentration of that solution.
The solution in which a sufficient amount of solute dissolves is called a concentrated solution.
The solution in which a small amount of solute dissolves is called a dilute solution. All dilute solutions are unsaturated solutions.
When particles of a substance are dispersed around other types of particles, this action is called dispersion. The first substance is called the dispersed material and the second substance is called the dispersion medium.
Two types of substances are formed as a result of dispersion –
- Equilibrium (real solution)
- Substances (suspension and colloidal
The size of the dispersed particles varies from 10-5 to 10-7 cm. Its particles can cross through the filter paper but cannot cross through the parchment paper. Like- milk, gum, ink, blood, etc.
Types of Colloids
There are three types of colloids – sol, gel, and aerosol.
In this solid particles are dispersed in a liquid.
Columns in which solid particles are uniformly dispersed in liquid but do not penetrate are called gels. Such as jelly and gelatin etc.
The dispersion of solid or liquid particles in a gas is called an aerosol. The aerosol is smoked when the dispersed particles are solid and the aerosol is called fog when the dispersed particles are liquid.
When the medium of dispersion is benzene, the colloid is called hydrosol.
When the medium of dispersion is alcohol, the colloid is called alcohol.
Emulsion and Emulsification
When all the particles of one fluid in a colloid are dispersed in all the particles of the other fluid but do not dissolve, then this colloid is called emulsion and this method of making emulsion is called emulsification.
Soaps, paints, detergents, and cod liver oil are artificial emulsions.
Milk– Milk is a natural emulsion.
Foam – The dispersion of gas in a liquid is called foaming, which produces soap.
This solution is permanent and transparent, whose particles range in size from 10-7 to 10-8 cm. Its particles filter.