Chemistry

Non Metals

What is Non-metal?

According to the modern periodic table, there are 10 solids, 11 gases, and 1 fluid non-metal. Nonmetal found in the liquid state is bromine. Non-metals are the conductors of heat and electricity, but graphite is a non- metal that is the conductor of heat and electricity.

Some of the major non-metals and their uses

Hydrogen

Hydrogen has three isotopes – protium ( ), deuterium ( )  and tritium ( ).

Deuterium oxide and heavy water are called the formula  is. It freezes at 3.8 ° C. Heavy water was discovered by Yuri and Nearburn in 1932 AD. 7000 parts of ordinary water are one part of heavy water.

Use of Heavy Water

  • In making compounds of deuterium.
  • As a tracer.
  • As a neutron diluent.

Use of Soft Water

Water that lathers easily with soap is called soft water.

Use of Hard Water

Water that lathers hard with soap is called hard water.

What is the hardness of water and how to overcome it?

Water hardness is of two types:

  • Temporary hardness
  • Permanent hardness

Temporary Hardness – In this state water contains bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium.

Measures to remove temporary stiffness :

  • Boiling water
  • By adding milky lime to the water

Permanent hardness – In this state, salts of calcium and magnesium sulfate, chloride, nitrate, etc. are dissolved in the water.

Measures to remove permanent hardness:   

  • Boiling sodium carbonate in water removes both temporary and temporary hardness, which is known as the permutation method.

Oxygen

Oxygen has three isotopes – (1) 16 (2)  17 (3)   8.          

Ozone

It is a form of oxygen that is at an altitude of about 30–32 kilometers from the coast and protects from ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Nitrogen

Wayuu N Dal 78% of nitrogen. The major compound of nitrogen is ammonia which is manufactured by the Haber method.

Who fixes nitrogen in pulses crops?

A bacterium called Rhizobium is found in the roots of pulses that stabilize nitrogen.

Uses of Nitrogen

  • Fluid nitrogen is used as a refrigerant for biomass in food additives and for surgery at low temperatures.
  • As diluent in the iron and steel industry.

Uses of Nitrogen compound Ammonia 

  • In making ammonium salts.
  • In making explosives.
  • In making ice.
  • To make nitric acid.
  • Urea, ammonium sulfate, etc. in making fertilizer.
  • In making sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate.
  • In making artificial fibers.

Phosphorus

It is found in bones and organism cells (DNA).

There are three types of phosphorus:

  • White phosphorus
  • Red phosphorus 
  • Black phosphorus

Sulfur

It is found to be 0.05 percent on the surface of the earth. Its important industrial chemical is sulfuric acid, which is 98% pure. The formula for sulfuric acid is H SO 4.

Uses of sulfuric acid 

  • In making ammonium sulfate superphosphate fertilizer.
  • In the detergent industry.
  • In making storage batteries.
  • In petroleum refining.
  • Synthesis of paints and colors.
  • As a repellent in the laboratory.

Chlorine

It is an element of halogen group class 7 (A) which is used in the synthesis of drugs and insecticides.

Fluorine

This halogen group is an element of class 7 (A) that is used to make  UF and  SF 6.

Bromine

This halogen group is an element of class 7 (a).

Uses of Bromine  

  • It is used in making silver bromide which is required in photography.
  • It is used in the synthesis of ethylene bromide, which is added to glazed petrol.

Passive Gas

They are placed in class 0 of the periodic table, their number is 6. These are – helium, neon, krypton, xenon, argon, and redan. These elements are also called inert gases or noble gases. Argon gas was discovered by Ram J.

What is Stranger Gas called?

Xenon gas is also called Stranger gas which is soluble in water.

Uses of Neon Gas

  • In immersion lamps and aircraft tubes
  • To signal aircraftmen at airports.
  • In the electric bulb.

Uses of Helium

  • In balloons.
  • For meteorological studies.
  • In the nuclear furnace.
  • A mixture of helium and oxygen is used by divers to breathe more .
  • Helium gas is mixed with oxygen for artificial breathing in hospitals.

Uses of Radon

  • Use of radon as radiotherapy in treating head.

Uses of Argon

  • Use Argon to generate inert atmosphere welding and filling light bulbs are used.

Uses of Krypton

  • In making laser and electric bulbs.
  • In photography.

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