Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table
- Hydrogen is the first element of the periodic table as its atomic number is 1.
- A single electron is present in the K shell.
- Hydrogen resembles in many properties alkali metals as well as halogens.
- Its electronic configuration is 1s^1.
Resemblance of Hydrogen with Alkali Metals
The number of valence electrons in alkali metals and hydrogen is similar.
Formation of Unipositive Ion
The hydrogen as well as alkali metals lose one electron to form a unipositive ion.
Formation of Oxides, Halides, and Sulfides
just like alkali metals hydrogen also gets combined with electronegative elements such as oxygen, halogen, and sulfur forming oxide, halide, and sulfide respectively.
Example: Na2O, NaCl, Na2S, HCl, H2O.
Like alkali metals hydrogen also acts as a reducing agent.
Resemblance of Hydrogen with Halogens
Both halogens and hydrogen lose an electron to attain inert gas configuration.
Just like halogen hydrogen forms diatomic molecules too.
Hydrogen as well as halogens both have higher ionization enthalpies.
Emission of Uninegative Ion
Both hydrogen and halogens lose one electron to form uninegative ions.
Formation of Hydrides and Covalent Compounds
Hydrogen as well as halogens combined with elements to form hydrides with a larger number of covalent compounds.
Difference from Alkali Metals
- Ionization enthalpy of hydrogen is very high as compared to that of alkali metals.
- Alkali metals pose metallic character but hydrogen does not purchase metallic character under normal conditions, but under artificial conditions, it may attain metallic character.
- The size of hydrogen ion that is the nucleus of the hydrogen atom is (1.5× 10-3 pm)Which is extremely small as compared to the normal atomic size and ionic size of alkali metals (50 to 200 pm). As a result, Hydrogen ion does not exist freely and is always associated with other atoms.
Difference from Halogens
- The reactivity of hydrogen is very low as compared to halogens.
- Oxides of halogens are acidic while hydrogen is neutral.