Biology

Virus

Virus

Virus means venom or the poison or the poisonous fluid. It was given by Louis Pasteur.
It is a connecting link between living and non-living
Virus are intercellular, an obligate parasite, a self-replicating non-cellular obligate parasite, self-replicating non-cellular, sub-microscopic organisms
They lack cellular organelles like ribosomes, mitochondria.

Living Characters Of Virus

  • A virus has living material.
  • Have definite shape and size.
  • Genetic material DNA or RNA.
  • They can grow.
  • It can be transmitted from one host to another.
  • They can do multiplication within the host.
  • Shows irritability.
  • It can bring enzymatic chanINFLUENZAges in vitro.
  • They are able to infect and cause disease to live organisms.
  • They can mutate.
  • DNA and proteins of the virus are similar to those of higher organisms.

Non-Living Characters of Virus

  • They are inactive outside the body of the host.
  • They have either DNA or RNA.
  • There is no cell wall membrane or cytoplasm.
  • There is no metabolism.
  • They are not able to do any fiction unless they obtain metabolic products from others.
  • Energy producing enzyme system is absent.

Some Characters of Virus

  • Presence of only DNA or RNA.
  • Do not show cell division.
  • They use the metabolic machinery of the host cell to replicate.
  • Examples of Virus, HIV, Hepatitis B, Ebola, Adenovirus, Bacteriophage

Structure of Virus

  • The virus is a parasitic cell replicating, non-cellular, sub-microscopic organisms.
  • A simple particle of a virus is known as Virions.
  • It has a protein covering called Capsid.
  • It is made up of capsomeres.
  • These sub-units are arranged in helical or polyhedral .
  • It has one type of nucleic acid either DNA or RNA.
  • If the virus has DNA it is known as deoxyvirus and if the virus has DNA. It is known as the ribovirus.

Classification of Virus

It is of two types:-
Plant Virus- plant virus
Animal Virus- zoo virus
But some other categories are also found in the virus which is as follows:-
Bacteriophage– bacteria
Synophage– Blue-green algae
Mycovirus– a virus which affects fungi
Phycovirus– affects algae
Single Strand of DNA
Ex: Coliphage Virus
Double Strand of DNA
Ex: Herpes Virus
Single Strand RNA
Ex: TMV
Double Strand of RNA
Ex: Reovirus

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