Enzymes and Proteins
Having a complex structure like proteins which are a unique complex molecule.
Heat, acid, alkali, and other agents that denature proteins also destroy the activity of enzymes.
Show color reaction and ultraviolet absorption spectrum which is a characteristic of a protein.
Enzymes, Hormones, Difference between enzyme and hormone.
Molecular Structure of Enzyme
There are two general types of structure of enzymes found. They are amphoteric and collided with nature.
Simple Protein Molecule
Containing only amino acids.
Conjugated Protein Enzyme
Having two parts
Apo Enzyme – Amino acids
Cofactor Enzyme – A non-protein molecule
The enzyme molecule containing protein and cofactor is known as the holoenzyme.
Cofactor may be an inorganic metal ion or an organic prosthetic group or coenzyme.
General Properties of an Enzyme
They are active in extremely small amounts.
The enzyme remains unaffected by the reaction.
The enzyme does not affect the equilibrium of the reaction.
They are specific in nature.
They are thermolabile in nature.
Nomenclature and Classification of Enzyme
An enzyme is divided into six major class:-
Catalyze oxidoreductase reaction, e.g. cytochrome oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of cytochrome.
Transfer the functional group other than hydrogen from one substance to another e.g, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase catalyzes the shifting of an amino group from glutamate to pyruvate.
Catalyze the hydrogen of a substrate by adding constituents of the water e.g. esterase
Catalyze the reaction in which substrate e.g, Histamine decarboxylase breaks the covalent bond between carbon atoms.
Catalyze the reaction in which substrate is converted into its positional or optical isomer by intermolecular rearrangement e.g. Phosphohexoisomerase catalyzes the conversion of glucose 6 phosphates into fructose.
The enzyme catalyzes the linking together pyruvate and carbon dioxide to form oxaloacetate.