Contributions of Biologists – I
A. Burgerstein – used the term guttation.
A.F.W. Schimper – first used the term plastids for the cell organelles.
A. Sturtevant – Chromosomal Mapping.
Alexander Fleming – the discovery of Penicillin.
Alec Jeffreys – DNA Fingerprinting.
Alphonse Leveran – Malarial parasite.
Andreas Wanger – obtained the fossil of Archaeopteryx lithographic
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty – DNA is the genetic material
Benzer – Cistron, Recon, Muton.
Birbal Sahni – father of Indian Palaeobotany.
Camillo Golgi – discovered the system of membranes in eukaryotic cells and it was named after its discoverer as Golgi complex.
Chargaff – the rule of equivalence in DNA structure.
Charles Robert Darwin – proposed the theory of natural selection.
E. Wilson – coined the term biodiversity.
Edward Jenner – discovered the cowpox vaccine.
Ernest Haeckel – proposed recapitulation theory.
F. Meischer – isolated nucleic acid from pus cells called nuclein.
Francesco Redi – first discard spontaneous generation of life.
Frederick Griffith – demonstrated the phenomena of transformation in a bacterium.
G. Gamow – triplet nature of codons.
G.J. Mendel – father of genetics.
Godfrey Hounsfield – first invented CT scan and awarded Nobel prize for his work in 1979.
Grinnel – coined the term niche in 1917.
G. Tansley – coined the term ecosystem in 1935.
Gustafson – first to induce parthenocarpy.
H. Boyer – discovered restriction enzyme.
Haeckel – established that the nucleus is responsible for storing and transmitting hereditary characters.
Hargobind Khorana – recipient of Nobel Prize for cracking the genetic code.
Henking – discovered X chromosomes.
Henry Bates – first described the phenomenon of mimicry.
Hershey and Chase – DNA is the genetic material.
Hevesy – first utilized radioactive isotopes in biological research.
Hugo de Vries – proposed mutation theory of evolution.
Hugo de Vries, Correns, and Tschermark – Rediscovered Mendelism.
Jacob, Monod, and Lwoff – Proposed lac operon.
James D. Watson and Francis H.C. Crick – proposed a double helix model of DNA.
Jean Baptiste Lamarck – proposed the theory of inheritance of acquired characters.
John Otto – discovered hemophilia.
John Ray – introduced the term species.
Jon Jakob Berzelius – predicted the existence of biological catalysis.
Joshua Lederberg – coined the term plasmids.
Joshua Lederberg and Edward – first demonstrated sexuality in bacteria.
Karl Landsteiner – discovered blood groups in human beings.
Karl Landsteiner and A.S. Wiener – discovered Rh factor.
Lamarck and Treviranus – coined the term biology.
Lederberg – homogeny, biogeny, and cognomen.
Leewenhoek – reported polyembryony.
Louis Pasteur – father of microbiology.
M. Calvin – traced the path of carbon in photosynthesis and established the C3 cycle.
M. Fujino – put forward activated potassium ion transport mechanism for opening and closing of stomata.
M.J. Schleiden and T. Schwann – formulated the cell theory which states that the cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms.
M. Knoll and E. Ruska – developed an electron microscope.